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Ainda sobre o caso do jet ski: crime doloso, culposo ou nenhum crime?

  • No caso da menina morta em Bertioga no dia 18 deste mês, atropelada pelo jet ski pilotado por um adolescente, o advogado da família da vítima espera ver o proprietário do jet ski indiciado por homicídio doloso, no caso, por dolo eventual (neste tipo de dolo o agente não quer necessariamente o resultado mas assume o risco de produzí-lo).
  • Discutiremos neste post a diferença nem sempre bem definida entre culpa consciente e dolo eventual. Tentarei esclarecer os motivos de uma eventual condenação por homicídio culposo dos responsáveis pelo empréstimo do jet ski ao adolescente, caso o empréstimo tenha ocorrido.
  • Apesar de a possibilidade de ter havido homicídio doloso não ser mencionada no post anterior, a probabilidade do dolo ser provado não é nula, mas, como veremos, a probabilidade de ter ocorrido simples culpa é muito maior, e o dolo eventual será muito mais difícil de provar do que a culpa, se houver.
  • O simples fato de o adolescente sem habilitação ter pilotado ou tentado pilotar o jet ski não torna necessariamente criminosa a conduta de quem permitiu o uso da máquina.

Os fatos analisados neste post são provenientes principalmente da reportagem de Maurício Tonetto publicada no Portal Terra em 20/02/2012. Tais fatos não são incontestáveis. A possibilidade de condenação das pessoas envolvidas na morte da menina de 3 anos, atingida na cabeça por um jet ski, só poderá ser confirmada por meio do devido processo legal, não cabendo ao autor deste blog qualquer tipo de julgamento das pessoas envolvidas, tampouco do trabalho realizado pela polícia, pelo Ministério Público e pelos advogados contratados pelas partes.

Continuando o assunto abordado no post anterior, vejamos alguns conceitos e raciocínios jurídicos aplicáveis ao caso da menina morta em Bertioga, atropelada por um jet ski.

Uma conduta é dolosa quando o agente tem a consciência e a vontade de praticar uma ação ou omissão cujo resultado é previsto como certo ou possível. Mas existem dois tipos de dolo: o direto e o eventual. No dolo direto, o agente quer que o resultado se produza. Já no dolo eventual, o agente assume o risco de produzi-lo.

No dolo eventual, o agente sabe que o resultado é provável, mas simplesmente não se importa com a possibilidade de sua ocorrência. No caso de Bertioga, um adulto teria dolo eventual de homicídio se soubesse, por exemplo, que o adolescente costuma se divertir lançando o jet ski desgovernado em direção à areia e, mesmo assim, permitisse que o garoto brincasse com a máquina em um dia de praia cheia de banhistas. Mesmo sabendo que o garoto não apontava o jet ski para ninguém em particular, o adulto deveria saber que lançar o jet ski contra a areia cheia de banhistas torna muito provável a lesão ou morte de alguém. Se esse adulto ainda assim permitisse esse tipo de uso do jet ski, achando que a vida das pessoas na praia não é importante, achando que tanto faz se alguém morrer, então ele agiria com dolo eventual, assumindo o risco do resultado. Porém, os fatos narrados pela imprensa até o momento, não permitem achar que isso tenha ocorrido. Aparentemente, ninguém brincava de lançar o jet ski contra a areia.

Se já entendemos mais ou menos o que é dolo eventual, devemos notar que aquele que assume um risco de morte de outra pessoa nem sempre comete crime de homicídio. Se uma pessoa em Salvador convida um amigo do Rio de Janeiro para conhecer a capital da Bahia no momento em que a Polícia está em greve, e o carioca acaba morrendo em um assalto em Salvador, a conduta do baiano que convidou e até mesmo pagou a passagem do carioca não pode ser considerada crime, nem doloso nem culposo. O risco assumido nesse caso é um risco normalmente tolerado pela sociedade, portanto não há crime. Trata-se de exclusão do crime pela teoria da imputação objetiva.

Quando ocorre um dano decorrente de uma conduta típica, ilícita e culpável, existe crime, conforme explicamos rapidamente no post anterior. Se o crime é culposo, o agente com certeza praticou uma conduta que apresentava um risco para a vítima. Se não há risco, não pode haver crime. Exemplificando: se limpar uma arma descarregada com imprudência não apresenta nenhum risco imediato, ninguém pode morrer pela falta de cuidado de quem manipula a arma, não pode haver crime de homicídio. Mas se a mesma imprudência é aplicada quando a arma está carregada, a mesma pode disparar acidentalmente e matar alguém, caracterizando crime culposo se a conduta é típica, ilícita e culpável. Nesse caso, só há culpa se a pessoa não consegue prever o disparo com resultado morte (culpa inconsciente), ou, se consegue prever o resultado, acredita que poderá evitá-lo (culpa consciente), seja apontando a arma para longe da outra pessoa, seja evitando o próprio disparo.

No exemplo dado, se a arma está carregada, existe um risco criado pelo agente. Se não houvesse risco, a arma nunca poderia disparar e atingir alguma vítima. Se a arma dispara e atinge alguém, pode haver crime culposo, a não ser que o agente queira a morte da vítima, caso em que há dolo direto, ou não se importe se a morte ocorrer, caso de dolo eventual.

O dolo eventual decorre do fato de o agente assumir o risco do resultado, isso significa que é preciso que esse resultado seja aceitável pelo agente ou, em outras palavras, que o resultado seja indiferente para o agente. Para ele, tanto faz se a vítima morrer. Quem tem dolo eventual em homicídio, tem total desprezo pela vida da vítima, apesar de não querer necessariamente a sua morte. Na culpa consciente, por sua vez, o agente não tem desprezo pela vida da vítima, simplesmente ele não toma os cuidados que uma pessoa normalmente tomaria. O resultado é o mesmo, mas a conduta homicida guiada pela indiferença é mais grave e mais severamente punida que a conduta de alguém que tenta evitar a morte mas não toma cuidado suficiente.

No caso do jet ski, se um menor não pode ter habilitação para guiar a máquina, podemos dizer que o risco criado pelo piloto adolescente não é aceito pela sociedade, assim como não é aceito o risco de limpar uma arma carregada. Resta claro que, se algum adulto permitiu o uso do jet ski pelo adolescente, assumiu um risco que não é aceito pela sociedade. Mas será que esse adulto tem desprezo pela vida humana (dolo eventual) ou, de forma menos grave, simplesmente acreditou que o menor poderia evitar atropelamentos (culpa consciente)?

O dolo eventual requer provas de que, se os adultos permitiram o uso do jet ski, eles tinham desprezo pela vida da vítima ou indiferença pela sua morte. Se não exigirmos a prova, qualquer situação de risco, em que o agente não tome os cuidados necessários, deixaria de ser enquadrada em culpa e passaria a ser tratada como dolo eventual. Assim, nada mais seria culpa. Toda vez que o agente apresentasse falta de cuidado diríamos que tem dolo eventual porque assume o risco pelo resultado, tratando com indiferença o fato de matar ou não matar alguém. Essa presunção de dolo não é possível, é preciso provar o dolo.

Acredito que seja muito pouco provável a caracterização de dolo eventual de quem emprestou o jet ski ou permitiu o seu uso pelo adolescente. A simples falta de cuidado é muito mais comum do que o total desprezo pela vida alheia. Se houver algum adulto envolvido no empréstimo do jet ski e esse adulto demonstrar sincero arrependimento, acredito que estará descartado o enquadramento em homicídio com dolo eventual, pois o adulto terá mostrado que se importa com a vida da menina, restando a possibilidade de crime culposo, ou crime nenhum, caso não haja culpa.

Mesmo que haja violação de um dever de cuidado por parte do adulto que possibilitou o uso do jet ski pelo adolescente sem habilitação, isso não é suficiente para a condenação desse adulto por homicídio culposo. É preciso ainda que a violação do dever de cuidado seja determinante do resultado morte. Para ter certeza de que a falta de cuidado determinou a morte, devemos imaginar se uma conduta cuidadosa teria gerado o mesmo resultado. Se o dono do jet ski tivesse emprestado a máquina para alguém habilitado a pilotá-lo, será que o mesmo acidente poderia ter ocorrido? Será que o acidente foi determinado por falha mecânica do jet ski, por exemplo? Se uma pessoa cuidadosa e habilitada poderia ter gerado o mesmo desastre, então não seria a falta de cuidado a causa determinante da morte da menina. Nesse caso, não haveria nem crime culposo, mesmo considerando que o jet ski era pilotado por menor sem habilitação (Zaffaroni, pag. 443).

Se houver processo e surgir dúvida acerca do dolo do agente, se não houver prova suficiente, o dolo deverá ser descartado em benefício do réu. Na dúvida, no Direito Penal, devemos sempre beneficiar o réu. Nesse caso, poderão enquadrá-lo em crime culposo ou nenhum crime, se não houver culpa.

De acordo com os fatos divulgados até o momento, não vejo nenhuma razão para achar que os adultos envolvidos no caso do jet ski possam ter praticado homicídio doloso (dolo eventual), mas há quem pense diferente. Eu terei sempre respeito por quem pensa diferente e se dispõe a apresentar argumentos em defesa de sua tese.

Referências:

FRAGOSO, Heleno Claudio. Lições de Direito Penal. Parte Geral. 15a ed. – Rio de Janeiro: Forense, 1994

ZAFFARONI, E. R. e PIERANGELI, J. H. Manual de Direito Penal Brasileiro, vol 1. Parte Geral. 7a ed. – São Paulo: RT, 2007

JESUS, Damásio E. de. Direito Penal, vol 1 – Parte Geral. 28a ed. – São Paulo: Saraiva, 2005

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    Check for a real address, not a P.O. Box. Ask to see a driver’s license, and write down the information on it. Write down license plate numbers, and make sure the con artist sees you doing it. If it’s a legitimate offer, he won’t mind. Tell him you need to think the deal over for at least a few days before making a decision. A con artist will often pressure you to make a decision on the spot — often using hard sell tactics, such as saying that the deal won’t last. They may get nervous when you ask for something in writing, and will usually refuse to provide it. When someone wants your money, if the offer is legitimate, it will still be around next week. The most street-wise person can get taken in by a con. If you’ve been victimized, what should you do? Con artists count on their victims feeling foolish. Afraid to report the scam. But if you remain silent about being conned, you’re letting the con artist move on to steal from others. Write down every detail you can remember as soon as possible, while it’s fresh in your memory. Collect any documented evidence you might have as well.

    Do you know how to steer clear of con artists? See more money scam pictures. Con artists make money through deception. They lie, cheat and fool people into thinking they’ve happened onto a great deal or some easy money, when В­they’re the ones who’ll be making money. If that doesn’t work, they’ll take advantage of our weaknesses — loneliness, insecurity, poor health or simple ignorance. The only thing more important to a con artist than perfecting a con is perfecting a total lack of conscience. What does the average con artist look like? Despite what you may think, he isn’t always a shady-looking character. A con artist is an expert at looking however he needs to look. If the con involves banking or investments, the con artist will wear a snappy suit. If it involves home improvement scams, he’ll show up wearing well-worn work clothes. Mortgages, credit refinancing and other large loans are a major market for con artists. Some companies today offer “debt removal” services. They will provide you with a certificate that invalidates your mortgage or other debt, meaning you no longer have to pay for them, in return for a large fee.

    They first gain a person’s trust. Confidence before exploiting the victim. Con artists or scammers tend to be persuasive, smooth, adaptive and charming. Is being a con artist illegal? Yes, con artists are breaking the law when they scam and defraud a person. However, they’re rarely brought to justice as victims tend to feel foolish and don’t report the crime. What is a mark in a con? The “mark” is a term con artists use to specify their chosen victim or target. The mark can be anyone, but elderly people are common marks of online scams. How do you spot a con artist? Good con artists aren’t easy to spot. Keep your eye out for someone who is excessively charming or scenarios where you seemingly would get something for nothing. If it’s too good to be true, it probably is.

    You never get something for nothing. There’s an old saying: “You can’t cheat an honest man.” Most cons rely on the victim’s own greed. Con artists know that people often throw caution to the wind when they start seeing dollar signs. Deals that sound too good to be true usually are. Guard your personal information. Especially guard your Social Security number, credit card numbers and bank account numbers. We have to use these numbers in many of our daily transactions, but if you are asked for any of this information, be absolutely sure that the person doing the asking is someone you can trust or works for a reputable company. Don’t accept solicitations. Whether you get a cold call for an investment opportunity or someone comes to your door offering to do home repairs, hang up the phone and close the door. While there may be legitimate businesses that go door-to-door or make cold calls to find customers, they are few and far between. Watch for signs.Con artists often give themselves away if you ask enough questions. Ask for some kind of written documentation of their offer.

    A tea ceremony is anything but a casual affair. A tea ceremony isn’t your average tea party. There aren’t any scones or Mad Hatters. Rather, a tea ceremony is a solemn, symbolic and profound affair. Many Asian countries practice some sort of tea ceremony, but perhaps the most famous version is the one performed in Japan. When you attend a Japanese tea ceremony, you’re taking part in a historic tradition, one that allows you to seek enlightenment and search for beauty and peace in our hectic world. Tea ceremonies are governed by a concept known as ichgio ichie, or one time, one meeting. Even though the same series of tasks is performed at every tea ceremony, there is an awareness of the fact that every moment that the host and guests spend together is a unique one that can’t be duplicated. Understanding this concept forces participants to slow down and focus on each second, appreciating it for its distinctiveness, and it also forces the host to put on a special, meaningful event. The host must devise a theme for the event, such as an appreciation for sunrise or sunset or an awareness of the changing of the seasons. To emphasize this theme, the host selects a calligraphy scroll and creates flower arrangements that will accent the tearoom.

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    The calls come before 8:00 a.m. Calls come multiple times per day or even multiple times per hour. The calls come after you have told the caller to stop or that you can’t pay (even if you just told them verbally). The caller uses abusive language, or falsely implies that you will be arrests (you can’t be arrest for owing a debt). Very similarly to the rules for an employer, a debt collector cannot call friends and family about your debt. They are allowed to call 3rd parties to get your contact information if they don’t already have a way to get a hold of you, but they can’t use that exception to reveal to the third party that you owe a debt. Many people are aware that there is a limited time for a company to collect on a debt. The laws for this are called the Statute of Limitations (“SOL”). SOL controls how much time a company has to file a lawsuit, but once the lawsuit has been filed, the SOL no longer prevents collection. If a lawsuit has not been filed, and the collectors are still trying to recover the balance, that may still be lawful, as long they disclose they cannot sue you on the balance. If such disclosure has not been made, the collection would likely be a violation of consumer protection law.

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